Independent Variable

Independent Variable is a factor or phenomenon that causes or influences another associated factor or phenomenon known as dependent variable.

For Example : Income is an Independent Variable because it causes and influences another variable Consumption.

In a mathematical equation or model,  the independent variable is the variable whose value is given.

In an experiment, it is the controlled condition whose effect on the behavior of a dependent variable is studied.

Independent Variable is also known as Controlled Variable, explanatory variable or predictor variable.



Broadly, social heritage of a group whether organized community or Society. It is a pattern of responses discovered, developed, or invented during the group’s history of handling problems which arise from interaction among its member, and between them and their environment. These responses are considered the correct way to perceive, feel, think and act, and are passed on to the new members through immersion and teaching. Culture determine what is acceptable or unacceptable, important or unimportant, right or wrong, workable or unworkable. It encompasses all learned and shared, explicit or tacit, assumptions, beliefs, knowledge, norms and values as well as attitudes, behavior, dress and language.

Special Resolution

Extraordinary Resolution regarding an important decision, such as for altering the terms of the Articles of Association or the Memorandum of Association, or making some other major or fundamental changes in an Organization. A special resolution typically requires

1.  not less than 21 days of notice to the members of the intention to propose the resolution.

2.  not less than three – fourth of the votes of the members in present or by proxy for approval, and

3.  to be filed with the competent authority within 15 days of being approved.


1.  Formal authorization or expression of an action, decision, intention, opinion, transaction, etc.

2.  Proposition put before a meeting of stakeholders or the directors of the firm for discussion, approval or adoption. Resolutions can be divided into 4 types:

3. Appropriate disposition of a complaint or protest through prescribed or standard procedures.

4. Sharpness or clarity of a monitor, printer, or scanner image, expressed in an appropriate unit

  • Pixel Per Inch ( PPI ) for Monitors,
  • Dots Per Inch ( DPI ) for Printers,
  • Samples Per Inch ( SPI ) for Scanners.


Simple or Arithmetic average of a range of values or quantities, computed by dividing the total of all values by the number of values.


For Example : the mean of 3, 5, 7, 6, 4 is ( 25 / 5 ) = 5.


It is the most common and best general purpose measure of the mid – point of a set of values, but is prone to distortion by the presence of extreme values and may require use of measure of distortion such as mean deviation or standard deviation. This mean is also known as Arithmetic Mean.